National Socialist Symbols
The Black Sun - Also called the Sonnenrad (“sun wheel”), this design was derived from a mosaic found in Wewelsburg Castle, a centuries-old structure that had been picked out by Heinrich Himmler as the future ”spiritual center” of the race-based Nazi cult that he hoped would replace traditional religion. A member of the Landig Group described the symbol as a “mystical source of energy capable of regenerating the Aryan race”.
The Reichsadler - The “Imperial Eagle” has been a part of the coat of arms of Germany since the birth of the German Empire, and it remains a part of it still today (though it is now called the Bundesadler). During the Third Reich era, the eagle, combined with an oak wreath and swastika, became the new national emblem; the same emblem with the eagle facing right was called the Parteiadler, symbolizing not the Reich, but the Nazi Party.
The Celtic Cross - A simple Christian cross with a ring around the intersection. For whatever reason, National Socialists and proponents of white nationalism have adopted this (some call it “Odin’s Cross”, but that usually refers to the Sun cross) as their own as well. In Germany, its use within a racist context is banned.
The Iron Cross - Although not exclusively a Nazi symbol (it is still the symbol of the German military), the Iron Cross now carries some connotations because of its extensive use during the era. The Iron Cross as a military decoration has existed since 1813, but it was only made a German decoration in 1939. World War II-era Iron Crosses have swastikas embossed on them, but the plain, swastika-less Iron Cross is still used by National Socialists as a Neo-Nazi symbol.
Swastika - Cultures in North Africa, China, North America, and Europe have all (presumably independently) developed and used the swastika design, but it was used most extensively by the people of the Indus River Valley. When the Nazis claimed the swastika as their own, they saw it as a symbol of the Nordic “master race”, which (according to Nazi racial theory) had migrated through and spread their influence to Europe and as far east as India, where they apparently founded Hinduism. One of Heinrich Himmler’s favorite texts was, as it turns out, the Bhagavad Gita.
The (Broken) Sun Cross - In Europe, the “solar wheel” has been used since Neolithic times, representing the four seasons and together, the tropical year; its unbroken form bears resemblance to the Celtic cross, but that, the sun cross, and the swastika are all possible derivations of each other. This broken version was used by the German Faith Movement, a sort of Nazi Christianity based on German and Hindu scripture rather than the Bible.
The S-rune - The Proto-Germanic representation of the sun, taken by occultist Guido von List to symbolize victory. The double bolts are the symbol of the Schutzstaffel, which had a thing for using runes as motifs. Runes in general are still popular with Neo-Nazis as symbols of “cultural pride”.
Totenkopf - The “death’s-head” was first used as a military symbol by the Prussians, and it as later adopted by the Weimar Republic. In the Third Reich era, it was used by the Schutzstaffel (right on their visor caps). The infamous or “Death’s-Head Units”, wore the Totenkopf on their collars to distinguish themselves from other SS members - those belonging to this unit were in charge of administering the concentration camps.
Wolfsangel - The “wolf-hook” is a heraldic design, not a rune, despite the similarity it bears to some. It was used as the symbol of several divisions of the Waffen-SS, and supposedly the Nazi insurgency plan entitled Werwolf. Still popular among Neo-Nazis.